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By the 19th century, rowing was popular in Europe and had been exported to America. Sculling events use two oars, whilst in sweep the rower holds one.
The eight-person crews have a coxswain, who steers the boat and directs the crew, but in all other boats one rower steers by controlling a small rudder with a foot pedal.
The next Olympics, Atlanta 1996, had 5 events with the addition of mixed doubles.
There was also now a playoff between the two semifinal losers to determine the sole winner of the bronze medal. (d) = demonstration event (e) = exhibition event Below is the gold medalists shown based by category and countries after the 2016 Summer Olympics.
The highlight for the Greeks was the marathon victory by their compatriot Spyridon Louis.
In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, and bronze medals are awarded for third; this tradition began in 1904.
China has been the most successful nation in the Summer Olympics.
China is the only country ever to achieve a shutout of the medals, which they did at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. The general method of selection is by ranking, though the selection process stops once all qualification positions are filled.
Rowing was first used as a means of transport in ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome.
As a sport, it probably began in England in the 17th and early 18th centuries, with the Oxford-Cambridge university boat race, which was inaugurated in 1828.
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Winners were given a silver medal, while runners-up received a copper medal.